CABOCHON: A gemstone that has bee shaped and is polished as opposed to faceted. The resulting form has a convex surface and a flat back. Cabochon was the default method of preparing gemstones before gem cutting was developed.

COPPER (Cu): Copper is a chemical element and an extremely ductile metal. It is found in the free metallic state in nature. It was first used in 8000 BCE as a substitute for stone. (In my designs, an ancient metal to compliment ancient stones)

STERLING SILVER. Sterling silver is an alloy of silver and other metals usually copper, 92.5%by weight and 7.5% other metal. Sterling silver is more durable than fine silver.

FINE SILVER: Fine silver is 99.9% pure silver. It is generally too soft and malleable for making most jewelry.

NIOBIUM: Niobium is a chemical element with the chemical symbol of Nb and an atomic number of 41. It is a crystalline, ductile transition metal discovered in 1801. It is hypoallergenic. I use the wire for all my copper earrings and some of my silver earrings.

LAPIDARY: The term relates to stones and gems and the work involved in engraving, cutting, or polishing. The name also is a person that engraves, cuts and polished stone.

MAKING A CABOCHON: The stone is roughly trimmed using a lapidary trim saw then shaped and polished with a arbor which is a set of grinding and polishing wheels.

COLD CONNECTIONS: A cold connection holds layers or pieces in place with brads. The technique is used instead of soldering.

SOLDERING: Soldering is a process in which two or more items are joined together by melting and putting a filler metal (solder) into the join which has a lower melting point than the surrounding metal.

SGRAFFITO: A technique of design in which a surface layer of enamel prior to firing, is incised to reveal a ground of contrasting color.

TORCH FIRED ENAMEL: The enamel is melted over copper or silver with a torch instead of a kiln. I use an acetylene and air torch to torch fire.

KILN FIRED ENAMEL: A special oven is used to obtain temperatures high enough to melt the powdered enamel which is glass. Most of my work is fired at 1450 degrees fahrenheit.

TEXTURED METAL: The metal surface is textured using a variety of tools to create a random pattern of shapes and designs.

OXIDIZED METAL: The metal is exposed to solutions, usually containing a sulfide, creating a dark surface. The prominent areas are then polished to create an antiqued appearance.

CASTING: Casting is a process where a mold is made and then molten metal is poured into the mold.